The growth of educational system in Hyderabad State – Telangana Today


Hyderabad: In 1834, an English Public School, St. George Grammar School was opened at Abids by a clergy man of the Church of England.
The very first step taken towards the formation of a state educational system was opening of Oriental College as Dar-ul-Ulum by Salar Jung in Hyderabad in 1853-54 with 130-160 pupils on rolls. This college imparted knowledge of oriental lore in the Deccan and taste of learning through two classical languages, viz., Arabic and Persian. A provision was also made for instruction in four modern languages – Urdu, Telugu, English, and Marathi. Subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Astronomy formed part of the curriculum.
All Saints High School came into existence in 1855. It was established mainly to cater the needs of his highness the Nizam’s Army Staff, but later the doors were opened to children of all castes and communities. In 1860, a school was opened in each district headquarters and Taluk headquarters. WH Wilkinson was appointed as Education Secretary and Director of Public Instruction in 1869-70.
The modern western education in Hyderabad state began in the second half of the 19th century. Efforts were made to establish a proper education system in Hyderabad which was neglected for a long time. During the time of Salar Jung, a number educational institutions were established. Salar Jung took a keen interest in the development of modern education and the decade 1871 – 1880 witnessed progress in Education.
Two private schools, Madrasa-e- Aliya and Madrasa-i-Aiza were established to provide education to the children of nobility. The establishment of City High School, Chadarghat High School, Nizam College, Mahabubia College, Asafia High School, have also played a significant role in the growth of modern education in Hyderabad State.
A School of Engineering was established in 1870 to produce the required technical staff to public works department. In the year 1876 AD students were awarded foreign scholarships to go abroad for advanced study. They were also promised employment in government services on completion of their study in such advance courses.
Besides schools for boys a number of girls school known as the Zenana schools were also established. Prior to Salar Jung period girls education did not make much progress. During the reign of Nizam VI Mahabub Ali Pasha, the first government Zenana school was opened. Salar Jung was the first in Hyderabad to educate his daughters through a French Governess, who were educated privately.
Noor Unissa Begam had learnt Persian, Arabic, Urdu and English as well. She paid individual attention to the girls, especially in relation to the study of customs, manners and ways of life. A school for the girls of noble families was founded by her sister of Imad-ul-Mulk, Shujaat Ali – who opened a school in her palace where education was given to the daughters of nobles and Jagidars. Urdu, Persian Arabic, English, History and Geography were the main subjects taught at her palace.
Encouragement to female education was given by the Nizam’s government and private institutions. St. George’s Grammar School and Wesleyan Mission Schools for girls were meant only for Anglo–Indian Christians. Dr Aghornath Chatopadhyay, who was keenly interested in spreading female education, founded the Hindu Anglo-Vernacular School known as Chaderghat School as Glosia High School in 1881.
The school taught Telugu, English, Urdu, History, Geography, Home Sciences and Hindustani Music. In total there were 76 girls of whom 26 were Muslims and 50 were Hindus. This was the only Urdu medium school for girls in the Hyderabad city. In 1882, Wesleyan Mission opened girls’ schools at Chaderghat and Secunderabad. They were aided by the Nizam Government.
To improve administrative standards Salar Jung recruited talented people from all over the country, mainly from north India. In the first phase of reforms from 1853 to 1883 the efforts of Salar Jung to modernise the administration required officials to be trained in British India. Later, the non-Mulki administrators seized political power while Mulkis tried to gain administrative position.
The framework of a modernising bureaucracy was established and a non-Mulki group of administrators were imported into Hyderabad state. Syed Hussain Bligrami, Mahib Hussain, Syed Mehdi Ali, Mohin-ul-Mulk, Chirag Ali, etc., were some of the able administrators. Aghoranath Chatopadyaya was a famous educationalist and he was the founder Principal of Nizam College. The grandson of Mirza Galib, famous Urdu poet Mirza Asha Beig was invited to Hyderabad to give education for Prince Mahabub Ali Khan. The issue of Mulki and non-Mulki began during Salar Jung’s period.
To be continued…

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